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Excerpt from Title 5

Excerpt from Title 5

Chapter 6. Curriculum and Instruction

Subchapter 1. Programs, Courses and Classes

Article 1. Program, Course and Class Classification and Standards

55000 Definitions

(a) "Course" means an organized pattern of instruction on a specified subject

offered by a community college.

(b) "Educational program" is an organized sequence of courses leading to a

defined objective, a degree, a certificate, a diploma, a license, or transfer to another

institution of higher education.

(c) "Class" means a community services offering.

55002. Standards and Criteria for Courses and Classes

(a) Associate Degree Credit Course. An associate degree credit course is a

course which has been designated as appropriate to the associate degree in

accordance with the requirements of Section 55805.5, and which has been

recommended by the college and/or district curriculum committee and approved by the

district governing board as a collegiate course meeting the needs of the students

eligible for admission.

(1) Curriculum Committee. The college and/or district curriculum committee

recommending the course shall be established by the mutual agreement of the college

and/or district administration and the academic senate. The committee shall be either

a committee of the academic senate or a committee that includes faculty and is

otherwise comprised in a way that is mutually agreeable to the college and/or district

administration and the academic senate.

(2) Standards for Approval. The college and/or district curriculum committee

shall recommend approval of the course for associate degree credit if it meets the

following standards:

(A) Grading Policy. The course provides for measurement of student

performance in terms of the stated course objectives and culminates in a formal,

permanently recorded grade based upon uniform standards in accordance with

Section 55758 of this Division. The grade is based on demonstrated proficiency in

subject matter and the ability to demonstrate that proficiency, at least in part, by

means of essays, or, in courses where the curriculum committee deems them to be

appropriate, by problem solving exercises or skills demonstrations by students.

(B) Units. The course grants units of credit based upon a relationship specified by

the governing board, between the number of units assigned to the course and the

number of lecture and/or laboratory hours or performance criteria specified in the

course outline. The course also requires a minimum of three hours of work per week,

including class time for each unit of credit, prorated for short-term, laboratory, and

activity courses.

(C) Intensity. The course treats subject matter with a scope and intensity that

require students to study independently outside of class time.

(D) Prerequisites and Corequisites. When the college and/or district curriculum

committee, determines, based on a review of the course outline of record, that a

student would be highly unlikely to receive a satisfactory grade unless the student has

knowledge or skills not taught in the course, then the course shall require prerequisites

or corequisites that are established, reviewed, and applied in accordance with the

requirements of Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 55200) of this Subchapter.

(E) Basic Skills Requirements. If success in the course is dependent upon

communication or computation skills, then the course shall require, consistent with the

provisions of Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 55200) of this Subchapter, as

prerequisites or corequisites eligibility for enrollment in associate degree credit

courses in English and/or mathematics, respectively.

(F) Difficulty. The course work calls for critical thinking and the understanding

and application of concepts determined by the curriculum committee to be at college

level.

(G) Level. The course requires learning skills and a vocabulary that the

curriculum committee deems appropriate for a college course.

(3) Course Outline of Record. The course is described in a course outline of

record that shall be maintained in the official college files and made available to each

instructor. The course outline of record shall specify the unit value, scope, objectives,

and content in terms of a specific body of knowledge. The course outline shall also

specify types or provide examples of required reading and writing assignments, other

outside-of-class assignments, instructional methodology, and methods of evaluation

for determining whether the stated objectives have been met by students.

(4) Conduct of Course. Each section of the course is to be taught by a qualified

instructor in accordance with a set of objectives and with other specifications defined

in the course outline of record.

(5) Repetition. Repeated enrollment is allowed only in accordance with

provisions of Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 51000), Sections 55761-55763 and

58161 of this Division.

(b) Non-degree Credit Course. A credit course designated by the governing

board as not applicable to the associate degree is a course which, at a minimum, is

recommended by the college and/or district curriculum committee (the committee

described and established under Subdivision (a)(1) of this Section) and is approved by

the district governing board and falls within one of the categories described in

Subdivision (1) of this Subsection.

(1) Types of Courses. Non-degree applicable credit courses are:

(A) precollegiate basic skills courses as defined in Section 55502(d) of this

Division;

(B) courses designed to enable students to succeed in college-level work

(including, but not limited to, college orientation and guidance courses, and disciplinespecific

preparatory courses such as biology, history, or electronics) that integrate

basic skills instruction throughout and assign grades partly upon the demonstrated

mastery of those skills;

(C) precollegiate occupational preparation courses designed to provide

foundation skills for students preparing for entry into college-level occupational

courses or programs;

(D) essential occupational instruction for which meeting the standards of Section

55002(a) is neither necessary nor required.

(2) Standards for Approval. The college and/or district curriculum committee shall

recommend approval of the course on the basis of the standards which follow. In

order to be eligible for state apportionment, such courses must be approved (as

courses not part of programs) by the Chancellor’s Office as provided by Section 55100

of this Division.

(A) Grading Policy. The course provides for measurement of student

performance in terms of the stated course objectives and culminates in a formal,

permanently recorded grade based upon uniform standards in accordance with

Section 55758 of this Division. The grade is based on demonstrated proficiency in

the subject matter and the ability to demonstrate that proficiency, at least in part, by

means of written expression that may include essays, or, in courses where the

curriculum committee deems them to be appropriate, by problem solving exercises or

skills demonstrations by students.

(B) Units. The course grants units of credit based upon a relationship specified by

the governing board between the number of units assigned to the course and the

number of lecture and/or laboratory hours or performance criteria specified in the

course outline. The course requires a minimum of three hours of student work per

week, per unit, including class time and/or demonstrated competency, for each unit of

credit, prorated for short-term laboratory, and activity courses.

(C) Intensity. The course provides instruction in critical thinking and generally

treats subject matter with a scope and intensity that prepare students to study

independently outside of class time and includes reading and writing assignments and

homework. In particular, the assignments will be sufficiently rigorous that students

completing each such course successfully will have acquired the skills necessary to

successfully complete college-level work upon completion of the required sequence of

such courses.

(D) Prerequisites and corequisites. When the college and/or district curriculum

committee deems appropriate, the course may require prerequisites or corequisites for

the course that are established, reviewed, and applied in accordance with Article 2.5

(commencing with section 55200) of this Subchapter.

(c) Noncredit Course

A noncredit course is a course which, at a minimum, is recommended by the college

and/or district curriculum committee (the committee described and established under

subdivision (a)(1) of this section) and approved by the district governing board as a

course meeting the needs of enrolled students.

(1) Standards for Approval. The college and/or district curriculum committee

shall recommend approval of the course if the course treats subject matter and uses

resource materials, teaching methods, and standards of attendance and achievement

that the committee deems appropriate for the enrolled students. In order to be eligible

for state apportionment, such courses are limited to the categories of instruction listed

in Education Code section 84711, and must be approved by the Chancellor’s Office as

noted in Title V, section 55150.

(2) Course Outline of Record. The course is described in a course outline of

record that shall be maintained in the official college files and made available to each

instructor. The course outline of record shall specify the scope, objectives, contents,

instructional methodology, and methods of evaluation for determining whether the

stated objectives have been met.

(3) Conduct of Course. All sections of the course are to be taught by a qualified

instructor in accordance with the set of objectives and with other specifications defined

in the course outline of record.

(d) Community Service Class, A community services class is a class which

meets the following minimum requirements:

(1) Is approved by the local district governing board.

(2) Is designed for the physical, mental, moral, economic, or civic development of

persons enrolled therein.

(3) Provides subject matter content, resource materials, and teaching methods

which the district governing board deems appropriate for the enrolled students.

(4) Is conducted in accordance with a predetermined strategy or plan.

(5) Is open to all members of the community.

(6) May not be claimed for apportionment purposes.

NOTE

Section 70901, Education Code.

: Authority cited: Sections 66700 and 70901, Education Code. Reference:

55100 Course Approval

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) and Section 55160 [exempting

community service classes], each course to be offered by a community college shall

be approved by the Chancellor before the course is offered by the colleges. The

course shall be submitted to the Chancellor on forms provided by the Chancellor’s

Office.

(b) If an educational program has been approved by the Chancellor, the

governing board of a district shall establish policies for, and may approve individual

courses which are offered as part of an approved program. Such courses need not be

approved by the Chancellor, but shall be reported in the manner provided in

subsection(c).

(c) For each course approved by a district, whether or not Chancellor’s Office

approval is required, the district shall designate the appropriate classification of the

course or activity in accordance with Section 5500l [defining categories of instruction

to be reported].

55130

(a) Before offering any course as a part of an educational program at a college,

the governing board of a district shall obtain approval of the education program from

the Chancellor in accordance with the provisions of this article. Approval shall be

requested on forms provided by the Chancellor.

(b) The application for approval [of a new educational program] shall contain at

least the following:

(1) The name of the proposed program

(2) The description of the proposed program

(3) The purposes and specific objectives of the proposed program

(4) The place of the proposed program in the district master plan

(5) An explanation of whether the program is appropriate to the objectives and

conditions of higher education and community college education in California and

whether it conforms to statewide master planning.

(6) The need for the proposed program ascertained with regard to at least the

following factors:

(A) Other community colleges in the area currently offering the program.

(B) Other programs closely related to the proposed program offered by the

college

(C) Relation of the proposed program to job market analysis

(D) Enrollment projection for the proposed program

(E) Recommendations of area vocational master plan committees when

applicable.

(F) The classification of the courses in the program in accordance with Section

55001.

(7) The need for and present adequacy of the following resources shall be

determined in relation to the proposed program:

(A) Library resources

(B) Facilities and equipment required to initiate and sustain the program. If a new

facility is to be used, reference should be made to the five-year master plan.

(C) Availability of adequate or proposed financial support

(D) Availability of faculty.

(c) The development, establishment and evaluation of an educational program

shall include representative faculty involvement.

(d) An approval is effective until the program or implementation of the program is

discontinued or modified in any substantial way. From time to time the Chancellor

may evaluate an educational program, after its approval, on the basis of factors listed

in this section. If on the basis of such an evaluation the Chancellor determines that an

educational program should no longer be offered, the Chancellor may terminate the

approval and determine the effective date of termination.

(e) In multicollege districts, program approval is granted for a specific college.

Article 2.5. Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Recommended Preparation

55200. Definitions.

For the purposes of this Division, the following definitions apply:

(a) "Prerequisite" means a condition of enrollment that a student is required to

meet in order to demonstrate current readiness for enrollment in a course or

educational program.

(b) "Corequisite" means a condition of enrollment consisting of a course that a

student is required to simultaneously take in order to enroll in another course.

(c) "Advisory on recommended preparation" means a condition of enrollment that

a student is advised, but not required, to meet before or in conjunction with enrollment

in a course or educational program.

(d) .Satisfactory grade. means that, for the course in question, the student.s

academic record has been annotated with the symbol A, B, C or .CR. as those

symbols are defined in Section 55758 of this Division.

(e) .Necessary and appropriate. means that a strong rational basis exists for

concluding that a prerequisite or corequisite is reasonably needed to achieve the

purpose that it purports to serve. This standard does not require absolute necessity.

(f) .content review. means a rigorous, systematic process developed in

accordance with Sections 53200 to 53204, approved by the Chancellor as part of the

district matriculation plan required under Section 55510, and is conducted by faculty to

identify the necessary and appropriate body of knowledge or skills students need to

possess prior to enrolling in a course, or which students need to acquire through

concurrent enrollment in a corequisite course.

NOTE

Section 70901, Education Code.

: Authority cited: Sections 66700 and 70901, Education Code. Reference:

55201. Policies for Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Advisories on

Recommended Preparation.

(a) The governing board of a community college district may establish

prerequisites, corequisites, and advisories on recommended preparation, but must do

so in accordance with the provisions of this Article 2.5 §55200-55202. Nothing in this

subchapter shall be construed to require a district to establish prerequisites,

corequisites or advisories on recommended preparation; provided however, that a

prerequisite or corequisite shall be required if the course is to be offered for associate

degree credit and the curriculum committee finds that the prerequisite or corequisite is

necessary pursuant to Section 55002(a)(2)(D) or 55002(a)(2)(E).

(b) A governing board choosing to establish prerequisites, corequisites or

advisories on recommended preparation shall, in accordance with the provision of

Sections 53200-53204 of this Division, adopt policies for the following:

(1) The process for establishing prerequisites, corequisites, and advisories on

recommended preparation. Such policies shall provide that in order to establish a

prerequisite or corequisite, the prerequisite or corequisite must be determined to be

necessary and appropriate for achieving the purpose for which is it being established.

District policies shall also specify the level of scrutiny that shall be required in order to

establish different types of prerequisites, corequisites, and advisories on

recommended preparation. At a minimum, prerequisites, corequisites, and advisories

on recommended preparation shall be based on content review, with additional

methods of scrutiny being applied depending on the type of prerequisite or corequisite

being established. The policy shall provide that the types of prerequisites described in

Subsection (e) may be established only on the basis of data collected using sound

research practices. Determinations about prerequisites or corequisites shall be made

on a course-by-course or program-by program basis.

(2) Procedures to assure that courses for which prerequisites or corequisites are

established will be taught in accordance with the course outline, particularly those

aspects of the course outline that are the basis for justifying the establishment of the

prerequisite or corequisite.

(3) The process, including levels of scrutiny, for reviewing prerequisites and

corequisites to assure that they remain necessary and appropriate. These processes

shall provide that at least once each six years all prerequisites and corequisites

established by the district shall be reviewed. These processes shall also provide for

the periodic review of advisories on recommended preparation.

(4) The bases and process for an individual student to challenge the application

of a prerequisite or corequisite.

(c) Prerequisites or corequisites may be established only for any of the following

purposes;

(1) the prerequisite or corequisite is expressly required or expressly authorized

by statute or regulation; or

(2) the prerequisite will assure, consistent with Section 55002(a)(2)(D), that a

student has the skills, concepts, and/or information that is presupposed in terms of the

course or program for which it is being established, such that a student who has not

met the prerequisite is highly unlikely to receive a satisfactory grade in the course (or

at least one course within the program) for which the prerequisite is being established;

or

(3) the corequisite course will assure, consistent with Section 55002(a)(2)(D),

that a student acquires the necessary skills, concepts, and/or information, such that a

student who has not enrolled in the corequisite is highly unlikely to receive a

satisfactory grade in the course or program for which the corequisite is being

established; or

(4) the prerequisite or corequisite is necessary to protect the health and safety of

a student or the health and safety of others.

(d) Except as provided in this Subsection, no prerequisite or corequisite may be

established or renewed pursuant to Subsection (b)(3) unless it is determined to be

necessary and appropriate to achieve the purpose for which it has been established.

A prerequisite or corequisite need not be so scrutinized until it is reviewed pursuant to

Subsection (b)(3) if:

(1) it was established prior to July 6, 1990, and is part of a sequence of degreeapplicable

courses within a given discipline; or

(2) it was established between July 6, 1990, and the effective date of this

regulation, in accordance with regulations in effect during this period of time; or

(3) it is required by statute or regulation; or

(4) it is part of a closely-related lecture-laboratory course pairing within a

discipline; or

(5) it is required by four-year institutions.

(e) A course in communication or computation skills may be established as a

prerequisite or corequisite for any course other than another course in communication

or computation skills only if, in addition to conducting a content review, the district

gathers data according to sound research practices and shows that a student is highly

unlikely to succeed in the course unless the student has met the proposed prerequisite

or corequisite. If the curriculum committee initially determines, pursuant to Section

50002(a)(2)(E), that a new course needs to have a communication or computation skill

prerequisite or corequisite, then despite Subsection (d) of this Section, the prerequisite

or corequisite may be established for a single period of not more than two years while

the research is being conducted and the final determination is being made, provided

that all other requirements for establishing the prerequisite or corequisite have been

met.

(f) Any prerequisite or corequisite may be challenged by a student on one or

more of the grounds listed below. The student shall bear the initial burden of showing

that grounds exist for the challenge. Challenges shall be resolved in a timely manner

and, if the challenge if upheld, the student shall be permitted to enroll in the course or

program in question. Grounds for challenge are:

(1) The prerequisite or corequisite has not been established in accordance with

the district’s process for establishing prerequisites or corequisites;

(2) The prerequisite or corequisite is in violation of this Article;

(3) The prerequisite or corequisite is either unlawfully discriminatory or is being

applied in an unlawfully discriminatory manner;

(4) The student has the knowledge or ability to succeed in the course or program

despite not meeting the prerequisite or corequisite;

(5) The student will be subject to undue delay in attaining the goal of his or her

educational plan because the prerequisite or corequisite course has not been made

reasonably available; and

(6) Such other grounds for challenge as may be established by the district

governing board.

(g) In the case of a challenge under Subsection (f)(3) of this Section, the district

shall, upon completion of the challenge procedure established pursuant to this

Section, advise the student that he or she may file a formal complaint of unlawful

discrimination pursuant to Subchapter 5 (commencing with Section 59300) of Chapter

10 of this Division. Completion of the challenge procedure shall be deemed to satisfy

the requirement of Section 59328(b) that the district and the student attempt informal

resolution of the complaint.

(h) District policies adopted pursuant to this section shall be submitted to the

Chancellor as part of the district’s matriculation plan pursuant to Section 55510 of

Subchapter 6 of Chapter 6 of this Division.

NOTE

Section 70901, Education Code.

: Authority cited: Sections 66700 and 70901, Education Code. Reference:

55202. Additional Rules.

The following additional rules apply to the establishment of prerequisites and

corequisites:

(a) Prerequisites, corequisites, and advisories on recommended preparation

must be identified in college publications available to students as well as the course

outline of any course for which they are established.

(b) Prerequisites establishing communication or computational skill requirements

may not be established across the entire curriculum unless established on a courseby-

course basis.

(c) The determination of whether a student meets a prerequisite shall be based

on successful completion of an appropriate course or on an assessment using multiple

measures. Any assessment instrument used shall be selected and used in accordance

with the provisions of Subchapter 6 (commending with Section 55500) of Chapter 6 of

this Division.

(d) If a prerequisite requires precollegiate skills in reading, written expression, or

mathematics, the governing board of a district shall ensure that precollegiate basic

skills courses designed to teach the required skills are offered with reasonable

frequency and that the number of sections available is reasonable given the number of

students who are required to meet the associated skills prerequisites and who

diligently seek enrollment in the prerequisite course.

(e) Whenever a corequisite course is established, sufficient sections shall be

offered to reasonably accommodate all students who are required to take the

corequisite. A corequisite shall be waived as to any student for whom space in the

corequisite course is not available.

(f) No exit test may be required to satisfy a prerequisite or corequisite unless it is

incorporated into the grading for the prerequisite or corequisite course.

(g) The determination of whether a student meets a prerequisite shall be made

prior to his or her enrollment in the course requiring the prerequisite, provided,

however, that enrollment may be permitted pending verification that the student has

met the prerequisite or corequisite. If the verification shows that the student has failed

to meet the prerequisite, the student may be involuntarily dropped from the course if

the applicable enrollment fees are promptly refunded. Otherwise a student may only

be involuntarily removed from a course due to excessive absences or as a result of

disciplinary action taken pursuant to law or to the student code of conduct.

NOTE

Section 70901, Education Code.

: Authority cited: Sections 66700 and 70901, Education Code. Reference:

55316 Criteria

Courses offered pursuant to this Chapter shall:

(a) Be accepted by the college toward completion of an appropriate educational

sequence leading to an associate degree, and

(b) Be recognized by an institution of the University of California or the California

State University upon transfer to that institution

55316.5 Additional Courses

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, after June 1, 1995, the following additional

types of courses may be offered pursuant to this Chapter, consistent with guidelines

developed by the Chancellor:

(a) Nontransferable courses designed to meet the requirements of Sections

55805.5, 55806, and 55002(a) or (b);

(b) Noncredit courses conducted as distance education independent study. This

Section shall become inoperative on July 1, 2000, unless a later-adopted regulation

deletes or extends this date.

55317. Ongoing Responsibilities of Districts

Any district conducting courses under Section 55316 or 555316.5 shall:

(a) Maintain records and report data through the Chancellor’s Office Management

Information System on the number of students and faculty participating in new courses

or sections of established courses:

(b) Provide to the local governing board no later than July 1, 1995, and annually

thereafter, a report on all distance education activity.

(c) Provide other information consistent with reporting guidelines which shall be

developed by the Chancellor pursuant to Section 409 of the Procedures and Standing

Orders of the Board of Governors. This Section shall become inoperative on July 1,

2000, unless a later-adopted regulation deletes or extends this date.

55340. Eligibility for State Funds

In order for attendance in a course of independent study to be eligible for state

apportionment pursuant to the provisions of this Chapter, the course must be reported

as required by this Chapter, and meet all other requirements of statute and regulation

relative to eligibility for state apportionment.

55352. Number of Students.

The number of students assigned to any one course section offered by distance

education shall be determined by and be consistent with other district procedures

related to faculty assignment. Procedures for determining the number of students

assigned to a course section offered by distance education may include a review by

the curriculum committee established pursuant to Section 55002(a)(1).

55370. Distance Education

Distance education means instruction in which the instructor and student are

separated by distance and interact through the assistance of communication

technology. All distance education is independent study and subject to the general

requirements of Article 1 as well as the specific requirements of this Article (Article 2).

Provided however, that fully interactive distance education courses, as defined in

guidelines adopted by the Chancellor, shall not be considered independent study for

purposes of calculating state apportionment pursuant to Section 58003.1. In addition,

instruction provided as distance education is subject to the requirements that may be

imposed by the Americans with Disabilities Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 12100 et. seq).

55372. Course Quality Standards

The same standards of course quality shall be applied to distance education as are

applied to traditional classroom courses, in regard to the course quality judgments

made pursuant to the requirements of Section 55002 of this Part, and in regard to any

local course quality determination or review process.

55374. Course Quality Determinations

Determinations and judgments about the quality of distance education, under the

course quality standards referred to in Section 55372, shall be made with the full

involvement of faculty in accordance with the provision of Subchapter 2 (commencing

with Section 53200) of Chapter 2 of Division 4 of this Part.

55376. Instructor Contact

In addition to the requirements of Section 55002 and any locally-established

requirements applicable to all courses, district governing boards shall ensure that:

(a) Each section of a credit transferable course which is delivered as distance

education shall include regular personal contact between instructor and students,

through group or individual meetings, orientation and review sessions, supplemental

seminar or study sessions, field trips, library workshops, or other in-person activities.

Personal contact may be supplemented by telephone contact and correspondence.

(b) All other approved courses offered by distance education shall include regular

contact between instructors and students consistent with guidelines issued by the

Chancellor pursuant to Section 409 of the Procedures and Standing Orders of the

Board of Governors.

55378. Separate Course Approval

Each proposed or existing course if delivered by distance education, shall be

separately reviewed and approved, according to the district’s certified course approval

procedures.

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